The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) innervates multiple muscles. It innervates superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, levator palpebrae, sphincter pupillae, and ciliary muscles. If this nerve is damaged, malfunctioning of those muscles arises. Inferolateral displacement of the eyeball results from extraocular muscles denervation (superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique). Complete ptosis results from levator palpebrae denervation. Mydriasis results from sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles denervation, which are parasympathetically regulated. The signs and symptoms always occur ipsilaterally.
The personal, business, and educational uses of social media have impressively blossomed over the last decade. Social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, are now household names despite their recent debuts. Facebook, launched in 2004, and Twitter, launched in 2006, have even managed to either spawn their own verbs (facebooking) or repurpose others (tweeting). Both sites began as a way to build and nurture friendships, but have evolved into great advertising tools for businesses, and continue to evolve as potential enhancers to the educational process. As the tools available to diversify and expand the way education reaches students of all levels, medical school educators are learning to use these tools to their advantage.
According to the German writer and philosopher Goethe, “the most beautiful discoveries are made not so much by men as by the period.” History has shown that the methods of diagnosing and treating breast cancer have mirrored the thoughts of clinicians during the eras in which they have practiced. Indeed, breast cancer has been conceptualized within social and cultural norms over time. Today as we continue to strive for cures, we consider new treatment options based on the context of the period.
Malaria kills close to a million people yearly. It is most prevalent in countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia (Breman , 2004). The Plasmodium parasites in mosquitoes that cause malaria can be transmitted to humans by mosquito vectors of the genus Anopheles. A female mosquito bite transfers the parasite from an infected Anopheles mosquito to the human body and the Plasmodium sporozoites eventually make their way to the liver (Sinnis, 2007). The life cycle of sporozoites both in the mosquito as well as the host cell is important to consider because each step determines infection (Mota, 2001). Sporozoites are made and released in the mosquito midgut; they bind to the salivary glands and inhabit their secretory cells. Once they enter the mammalian host cell, they travel to the liver and traverse multiple cells until successfully invading hepatocytes (Coppi, 2007). Without successful invasion of hepatocytes, the infection is not viable.
Greetings, Class of 2010! Two thousand ten – that has a nice ring to it. I am honored to have an opportunity to address this entering medical school class at Meharry Medical College. You should be commended on your accomplishments. Acceptance to medical school is a big deal – this is a tremendous accomplishment. It is a time of celebration for students, parents and friends. Thank you for inviting me to celebrate with you and participate in today’s event. I have had an opportunity to reflect on my own emotional state nearly 22 years ago when I entered medical school. I was filled with overwhelming excitement and nearly paralyzing anxiety. I suspect that as you sit here today, you too are filled with a myriad of emotions – joy, excitement, anxiety. It is my goal today to help you strip away all anxiety and nervousness and to help you develop a strategy to achieve your ultimate goal of becoming a doctor.
There’s a lot to explore within the Circle City. Upon flying into the city, you’ll be impressed by the ease of airport navigation, check-in/baggage delivery, security check, and terminal facilities at the number one ranked small international airport by J.D. Power Associates in the 2010 North America Airport Satisfaction Study. Within walking distance of the hotels in the downtown area, you’ll find plenty to do and see no matter your budget. Convenient local site attractions include the Indianapolis Zoo (rated in the top ten zoo list by TripAdvisor in 2008), the NCAA Hall of Champions, the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indiana and Western Art, and the oldest surviving pathology facility in the nation, the Indiana Medical History Museum.
Osteopathic medical education has changed significantly since the days of our esteemed founder, Dr. A.T. Still. In recent decades, the increasing integration of osteopathic and allopathic training programs caused the two professions to be more alike than ever before. There are osteopathic physicians working in every medical specialty there is, and an increasing trend to step away from the very thing that makes us different: manipulation. The future of osteopathic medicine as we know it is in question: do we embrace it, or seek to change it?
In September of 2010, President Obama signed a Presidential Policy Directive on Global Development. The directive was designed to define a U.S. commitment to diplomacy and international relations. The establishment of the directive was followed by a response from the Department of State and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The organizations identified global health as one of the six imperative areas to be tackled in addressing foreign relations during the current administration. These programs collectively created the platform for the Global Health Initiative (GHI). The GHI is a 5.7 billion dollar foreign aid program; a six year commitment to improving health care in 73 different countries. The initiative places a special emphasis on HIV/AIDS; TB; malaria; maternal, newborn, and child health; family planning and reproductive health; and nutrition.
Levels of the hormone ghrelin are low in obese women and a recent study accepted for publication in Endocrinology, a publication of The Endocrine Society, reports that mice whose mothers had low ghrelin levels were less fertile due to a defect in implantation.
A gene therapy called NLX-P101 dramatically reduces movement impairment in Parkinson’s patients, according to results of a Phase 2 study published today in the journal Lancet Neurology. The approach introduces a gene into the brain to normalize chemical signaling.